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不锈钢焊接气孔是怎样产生?如何避免?

日期:2021-12-01 23:49
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摘要:<p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <p align="left" style="color:#000000;font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;font-style:normal;font-weight:normal;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">不锈钢焊接气孔是怎样产生?如何避免?</span></span> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">一、气孔的影响因素</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">1<span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">氩气流量:氩气流量过小</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">抗风干扰能力弱 </span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">; </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">过大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">气体流速太大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">经过喷嘴时形成的近壁层流很薄</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">气体喷出后</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">很快紊乱</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">而且容易把空气卷人</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">对熔池的保护效果变差。所以</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">氩气的流量一 定要合适</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">气流才能稳定</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">2<span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">氩气不纯:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接碳钢时氩气的纯度不低于</span> 99.7 %, <span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接铝时不 低于 </span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">99.9 %, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">而焊接钛和钛合金用的氩气纯度高达</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">99.99%</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">检测氩气纯度方法</span>:</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">在打磨干净的钢板或管子上不加焊丝进行焊接</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">然后在焊道上多次重熔</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">如果有气孔</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">则说明氩气不纯;焊接时</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧周围有非常小的火星也说明氩气不纯;有时当氩气的纯度接近焊接要求的纯度要求时</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">用上述</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">种检测方法并不能检验出来</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">但是在焊接有间隙的焊口时</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">就会在焊缝的根部产生断续的气孔</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">或者在盖面焊时产生表面气孔</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">或焊道表面有一层氧化皮;在镍板上点焊数点</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊点呈银白色</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">表面如镜面</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">则说明氩气纯度合格。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊枪喷嘴的影响:喷嘴直径过小</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">当电弧周围的氩气有效保护范围小于熔池面积时</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">就会造成保护不好而产生气孔。尤其是野外作业、焊接大管子时要用较大直径的喷嘴</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">以有效地保护电弧和熔池。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">气带漏气:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">气带接口或者气带漏气都会造成焊接时气体流量过小,空气被吸人气带内</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">从而造成保护效果不好。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">5<span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">风的影响:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">风稍大</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">会使氩气保护层形成紊流</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">从而造成保护效果不佳。因此</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">风速</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&gt; 2m/s</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">时要采取防风措施 </span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接管子时</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">要把管口堵住</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">避 免在管内形成穿堂风。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">6<span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊枪喷嘴与工件间的距离:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">该距离小</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">对侧风的影 响敏感度小 </span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">; </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">该距离大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">抗风干扰 的能力弱。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">7<span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">气瓶内压力太小:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">气瓶内的压力小于</span>1MPa <span style="font-family:宋体;">时要停用。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">8</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊枪角度过大:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊枪的角度过大</span>,<span style="font-family:宋体;">一方面会把空气带人熔池</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">另一方面造成长弧侧的氩气流对电弧 和熔池的保护效果变差。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">9</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">操作的影响:在用带控制按钮</span> <span style="font-family:宋体;">的氢弧焊焊枪时</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">在焊前要先放气</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">以免气带内的压 力过大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">在引弧 时造成出气流量瞬间过大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">产生 气孔。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">10</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">氢气流量表的影响:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">流量表出气不稳定</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">忽大忽小都会影响保护效果。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">11 </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊枪配件不合适:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钨极夹不配套</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">堵塞气路不流畅</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">保护气体从喷嘴内的一侧流出</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">不能形成完整的保护圈。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">二、焊接材料的影响</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊丝不干净,焊丝表面有铁锈、油污、水将直接促使焊缝内产生大量的气孔。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊丝型号的影响不能用埋弧焊焊丝代替手工钨极氢弧焊焊丝</span>,<span style="font-family:宋体;">否则会产生断续或者连续状的气孔。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">三、母材材质的影响</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">1.</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">板材或管材质量的影响:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">板材或管材中若有夹层</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">夹层中的杂质会促使气孔缺陷的产生。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钢种的影响:</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">沸腾钢</span> ( <span style="font-family:宋体;">氧含量 大、杂质多 </span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">) </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">不能用氩弧焊焊接。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">四、</span></span><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钨极</span></span><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">的影响</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钨极端部的影响钨极端部不尖</span>,<span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧漂移不稳定</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">破坏氩气的保护区</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">使熔池金属氧化产生气孔。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">引弧时电弧上爬造成保护不好</span> <span style="font-family:宋体;">当用高频引弧的设备时</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">刚引弧时钨极端部温度低</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">不具备足够的热发射电子能力</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电子容易从有氧化膜的地方发射</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">沿电极上爬寻找有氧化物的地方发射</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">此 时造成电弧拉长</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">氩气对熔池的保护效果变差</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">当钨极的温度上升后</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电子便从 钨极的前端发射</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧弧长相应变短。这时只要把钨极表面上氧化物打磨干净就可以排除。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">五、</span></span><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接工艺</span></span><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">的影响</span></span></span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">1 </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">坡口清理坡口面以及坡口两侧各</span>10mm <span style="font-family:宋体;">范围都要打磨干净</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">避免焊接时电弧产生的磁性把熔池附近的铁锈吸入熔池。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接电流的影响焊接电流太小</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧不稳定</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧在钨极的端部不规则地漂移</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">破坏保护区。焊接电流太大</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">电弧对气流产生扰乱作用</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">保护效果变差。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">焊接速度的影响焊接速度过快</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">由于空气阻力对保护气流 的影响</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">氩气气流会弯曲</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">偏离电极中心和熔池</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">对熔池和电弧保护不好。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">4</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">熄弧弧方法的影响熄弧时采用衰减电流或加焊丝、把电弧带到坡口侧并压低电弧的熄弧方法</span>,<span style="font-family:宋体;">不 要突然停弧造成高温的熔池脱离氩气流的有效保护</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">避免弧坑出现气孔或缩孔。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">5 </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钨极伸出长的影响钨极伸出长太长</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">氢气对电弧和熔池的保护效果变差。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">引起手工钨极氩弧焊焊接时产生气孔的因素固然较多</span>, <span style="font-family:宋体;">但是</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">只要了解了氩弧焊的特点</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">并根据实际情况逐一排查影响因素</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">排除所有引起氩弧焊时焊缝产生气孔的因素</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">, </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">就能够在实际生产中提高焊接质量。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;">&nbsp;</span> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <br /> </p> </span> </p> </p> <p align="left" style="margin:0pt;"> <br /> </p>

不锈钢焊接气孔是怎样产生?如何避免?

一、气孔的影响因素

1氩气流量:氩气流量过小, 抗风干扰能力弱 ; 过大,气体流速太大,经过喷嘴时形成的近壁层流很薄,气体喷出后, 很快紊乱,而且容易把空气卷人, 对熔池的保护效果变差。所以,氩气的流量一 定要合适,气流才能稳定

2氩气不纯:焊接碳钢时氩气的纯度不低于 99.7 %, 焊接铝时不 低于 99.9 %, 而焊接钛和钛合金用的氩气纯度高达99.99%

检测氩气纯度方法:在打磨干净的钢板或管子上不加焊丝进行焊接, 然后在焊道上多次重熔, 如果有气孔, 则说明氩气不纯;焊接时, 电弧周围有非常小的火星也说明氩气不纯;有时当氩气的纯度接近焊接要求的纯度要求时, 用上述2种检测方法并不能检验出来,但是在焊接有间隙的焊口时, 就会在焊缝的根部产生断续的气孔, 或者在盖面焊时产生表面气孔, 或焊道表面有一层氧化皮;在镍板上点焊数点, 焊点呈银白色, 表面如镜面,则说明氩气纯度合格。

焊枪喷嘴的影响:喷嘴直径过小, 当电弧周围的氩气有效保护范围小于熔池面积时, 就会造成保护不好而产生气孔。尤其是野外作业、焊接大管子时要用较大直径的喷嘴,以有效地保护电弧和熔池。

气带漏气:气带接口或者气带漏气都会造成焊接时气体流量过小,空气被吸人气带内, 从而造成保护效果不好。

5风的影响:风稍大, 会使氩气保护层形成紊流, 从而造成保护效果不佳。因此, 风速> 2m/s时要采取防风措施 ;焊接管子时,要把管口堵住,避 免在管内形成穿堂风。

6焊枪喷嘴与工件间的距离:该距离小, 对侧风的影 响敏感度小 ; 该距离大,抗风干扰 的能力弱。

7气瓶内压力太小:气瓶内的压力小于1MPa 时要停用。

8焊枪角度过大:焊枪的角度过大,一方面会把空气带人熔池, 另一方面造成长弧侧的氩气流对电弧 和熔池的保护效果变差。

9 操作的影响:在用带控制按钮 的氢弧焊焊枪时, 在焊前要先放气, 以免气带内的压 力过大, 在引弧 时造成出气流量瞬间过大, 产生 气孔。

10 氢气流量表的影响:流量表出气不稳定, 忽大忽小都会影响保护效果。

11 焊枪配件不合适:钨极夹不配套, 堵塞气路不流畅, 保护气体从喷嘴内的一侧流出,不能形成完整的保护圈。

二、焊接材料的影响

1 焊丝不干净,焊丝表面有铁锈、油污、水将直接促使焊缝内产生大量的气孔。

2 焊丝型号的影响不能用埋弧焊焊丝代替手工钨极氢弧焊焊丝,否则会产生断续或者连续状的气孔。

三、母材材质的影响

1.板材或管材质量的影响:板材或管材中若有夹层, 夹层中的杂质会促使气孔缺陷的产生。

2 钢种的影响:沸腾钢 ( 氧含量 大、杂质多 ) 不能用氩弧焊焊接。

四、钨极的影响

1钨极端部的影响钨极端部不尖,电弧漂移不稳定, 破坏氩气的保护区, 使熔池金属氧化产生气孔。

2 引弧时电弧上爬造成保护不好 当用高频引弧的设备时, 刚引弧时钨极端部温度低,不具备足够的热发射电子能力, 电子容易从有氧化膜的地方发射, 沿电极上爬寻找有氧化物的地方发射, 此 时造成电弧拉长, 氩气对熔池的保护效果变差, 当钨极的温度上升后, 电子便从 钨极的前端发射, 电弧弧长相应变短。这时只要把钨极表面上氧化物打磨干净就可以排除。

五、焊接工艺的影响

1 坡口清理坡口面以及坡口两侧各10mm 范围都要打磨干净, 避免焊接时电弧产生的磁性把熔池附近的铁锈吸入熔池。

2 焊接电流的影响焊接电流太小, 电弧不稳定, 电弧在钨极的端部不规则地漂移, 破坏保护区。焊接电流太大, 电弧对气流产生扰乱作用,保护效果变差。

3焊接速度的影响焊接速度过快, 由于空气阻力对保护气流 的影响, 氩气气流会弯曲, 偏离电极中心和熔池, 对熔池和电弧保护不好。

4 熄弧弧方法的影响熄弧时采用衰减电流或加焊丝、把电弧带到坡口侧并压低电弧的熄弧方法,不 要突然停弧造成高温的熔池脱离氩气流的有效保护,避免弧坑出现气孔或缩孔。

5 钨极伸出长的影响钨极伸出长太长, 氢气对电弧和熔池的保护效果变差。

引起手工钨极氩弧焊焊接时产生气孔的因素固然较多, 但是, 只要了解了氩弧焊的特点, 并根据实际情况逐一排查影响因素, 排除所有引起氩弧焊时焊缝产生气孔的因素, 就能够在实际生产中提高焊接质量。

 



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